Banner: Generically, a synonym for a flag of any kind. In heraldry, a flag whose design is the same as the shield in a coat of arms, but usually in a square or rectangular shape; also known as a banner of arms.
Civil Flag: A version of the national flag flown by civilians on non-government installations or craft.
State Flag: A variant of a national flag designated or restricted to use by a country’s government or its agencies.
Ensign: The flag of a ship or military unit. May also be used generically as a synonym for a flag of any kind.
Pennant: A general term for flags not strictly rectangular, usually narrow in width between the hoist and the fly and may be triangular, square-ended or swallow-tailed.
Wimpel: A pennant in national/livery colours with a simplified charge flown in place of a national or other flag to avoid the appearance of an empty flagpole.
Canton: Any quarter of a flag, but commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter
Charge: A figure or symbol appearing in the field of a flag.
Field: The background of a flag; the color behind the charges.
Fly: The half or edge of a flag farthest away from the flagpole. This term also sometimes refers to the horizontal length of a flag.
Eschutcheon: A shield that forms the main focal element in an achievement of arms.
Ineschutcheon: A small shield that has been placed inside of a larger one.